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Just a few more seconds before your game starts! This is taking longer than usual. Roman roads were named after the censor who had ordered their construction or reconstruction.

The same person often served afterwards as consul, but the road name is dated to his term as censor. If the road was older than the office of censor or was of unknown origin, it took the name of its destination or of the region through which it mainly passed.

A road was renamed if the censor ordered major work on it, such as paving, repaving, or rerouting. With the term viae regales compare the roads of the Persian kings who probably organized the first system of public roads and the King's highway.

However, there were many other people, besides special officials, who from time to time, and for a variety of reasons, sought to connect their names with a great public service like that of the roads.

Again, Gaius Scribonius Curio , when Tribune 50 BC , sought popularity by introducing a Lex Viaria , under which he was to be chief inspector or commissioner for five years.

Dio Cassius mentions as one of the forcible acts of the triumvirs of 43 BC Octavianus , Antony , and Lepidus , that they obliged the senators to repair the public roads at their own expense.

The second category included private or country roads, originally constructed by private individuals, in whom their soil was vested, and who had the power to dedicate them to the public use.

Under the heading of viae privatae were also included roads leading from the public or high roads to particular estates or settlements. These Ulpian considers to be public roads in themselves.

Features off the via were connected to the via by viae rusticae , or secondary roads. These prepared but unpaved roads were viae glareae or sternendae "to be strewn".

Beyond the secondary roads were the viae terrenae , "dirt roads". The third category comprised roads at or in villages, districts , or crossroads , leading through or towards a vicus or village.

They were considered public or private, according to the fact of their original construction out of public or private funds or materials. Such a road, though privately constructed, became a public road when the memory of its private constructors had perished.

Siculus Flaccus describes viae vicinales as roads " de publicis quae divertunt in agros et saepe ad alteras publicas perveniunt " which turn off the public roads into fields, and often reach to other public roads.

The repairing authorities, in this case, were the magistri pagorum or magistrates of the cantons. They could require the neighboring landowners either to furnish laborers for the general repair of the viae vicinales , or to keep in repair, at their own expense, a certain length of road passing through their respective properties.

With the conquest of Italy, prepared viae were extended from Rome and its vicinity to outlying municipalities, sometimes overlying earlier roads.

Building viae was a military responsibility and thus came under the jurisdiction of a consul. The process had a military name, viam munire , as though the via were a fortification.

Municipalities, however, were responsible for their own roads, which the Romans called viae vicinales. The beauty and grandeur of the roads might tempt us to believe that any Roman citizen could use them for free, but this was not the case.

Tolls abounded, especially at bridges. Often they were collected at the city gate. Freight costs were made heavier still by import and export taxes.

These were only the charges for using the roads. Costs of services on the journey went up from there.

Financing road building was a Roman government responsibility. Maintenance, however, was generally left to the province.

The officials tasked with fund-raising were the curatores viarum. They had a number of methods available to them. Private citizens with an interest in the road could be asked to contribute to its repair.

High officials might distribute largesse to be used for roads. Beyond those means, taxes were required. A via connected two cities.

Viae were generally centrally placed in the countryside. This is clearly shown by the fact that the censors, in some respects the most venerable of Roman magistrates, had the earliest paramount authority to construct and repair all roads and streets.

Indeed, all the various functionaries, not excluding the emperors themselves, who succeeded the censors in this portion of their duties, may be said to have exercised a devolved censorial jurisdiction.

The devolution to the censorial jurisdictions soon became a practical necessity, resulting from the growth of the Roman dominions and the diverse labors which detained the censors in the capital city.

Certain ad hoc official bodies successively acted as constructing and repairing authorities. In Italy, the censorial responsibility passed to the commanders of the Roman armies, and later to special commissioners — and in some cases perhaps to the local magistrates.

In the provinces, the consul or praetor and his legates received authority to deal directly with the contractor. The care of the streets and roads within the Roman territory was committed in the earliest times to the censors.

They eventually made contracts for paving the street inside Rome, including the Clivus Capitolinus , with lava, and for laying down the roads outside the city with gravel.

Sidewalks were also provided. The aediles , probably by virtue of their responsibility for the freedom of traffic and policing the streets, co-operated with the censors and the bodies that succeeded them.

It would seem that in the reign of Claudius AD 41—54 the quaestors had become responsible for the paving of the streets of Rome, or at least shared that responsibility with the quattuorviri viarum.

There was certainly no lack of precedents for this enforced liberality, and the change made by Claudius may have been a mere change in the nature of the expenditure imposed on the quaestors.

The official bodies which first succeeded the censors in the care of the streets and roads were two in number. They were: [9].

Both these bodies were probably of ancient origin, but the true year of their institution is unknown. The quattuorviri were afterwards called Quattuorviri viarum curandarum.

The extent of jurisdiction of the Duoviri is derived from their full title as Duoviri viis extra propiusve urbem Romam passus mille purgandis.

In case of an emergency in the condition of a particular road, men of influence and liberality were appointed, or voluntarily acted, as curatores or temporary commissioners to superintend the work of repair.

Among those who performed this duty in connection with particular roads was Julius Caesar , who became curator 67 BC of the Via Appia, and spent his own money liberally upon it.

Certain persons appear also to have acted alone and taken responsibility for certain roads. In the country districts, as has been stated, the magistri pagorum had authority to maintain the viae vicinales.

The portion of any street which passed a temple or public building was repaired by the aediles at the public expense. When a street passed between a public building or temple and a private house, the public treasury and the private owner shared the expense equally.

No doubt [ speculation? The governing structure was changed by Augustus , who in the course of his reconstitution of the urban administration, both abolished and created new offices in connection with the maintenance of public works, streets and aqueducts in and around Rome.

The task of maintaining the roads had previously been administered by two groups of minor magistrates, the quattuorviri a board of four magistrates to oversee the roads inside the city and the duoviri a board of two to oversee the roads outside the city proper who were both part of the collegia known as the vigintisexviri literally meaning "Twenty-Six Men".

Augustus, finding the collegia ineffective, especially the boards dealing with road maintenance, reduced the number of magistrates from 26 to Completely abolishing the duoviri and later being granted the position as superintendent according to Dio Cassius of the road system connecting Rome to the rest of Italy and provinces beyond.

In this capacity he had effectively given himself and any following Emperors a paramount authority which had originally belonged to the city censors.

The quattuorviri board was kept as it was until at least the reign of Hadrian between — AD. Also making the office of curator of each of the great public roads a perpetual magistracy rather than a temporary commission.

The persons appointed under the new system were of senatorial or equestrian rank, depending on the relative importance of the roads assigned to them.

It was the duty of each curator to issue contracts for the maintenance of his road and to see that the contractor who undertook said work performed it faithfully, as to both quantity and quality.

Augustus also authorized the construction of sewers and removed obstructions to traffic, as the aediles did in Rome.

It was in the character of an imperial curator though probably armed with extraordinary powers that Corbulo denounced the magistratus and mancipes of the Italian roads to Tiberius.

It is worth noting that under the rule of Claudius , Corbulo was brought to justice and forced to repay the money which had been extorted from his victims.

Special curatores for a term seem to have been appointed on occasion, even after the institution of the permanent magistrates bearing that title.

Their names occur frequently in the inscriptions to restorers of roads and bridges. Ancient Rome boasted impressive technological feats, using many advances that would be lost in the Middle Ages.

These accomplishments would not be rivaled until the Modern Age. Many practical Roman innovations were adopted from earlier designs.

Some of the common, earlier designs incorporated arches. Roman road builders aimed at a regulation width see Laws and traditions above , but actual widths have been measured at between 3.

Today, the concrete has worn from the spaces around the stones, giving the impression of a very bumpy road, but the original practice was to produce a surface that was no doubt much closer to being flat.

Many roads were built to resist rain, freezing and flooding. They were constructed to need as little repair as possible.

Roman construction took a directional straightness. Many long sections are ruler-straight, but it should not be thought that all of them were.

The Roman emphasis on constructing straight roads often resulted in steep slopes relatively impractical for most commercial traffic; over the years the Romans themselves realized this and built longer, but more manageable, alternatives to existing roads.

Roman roads generally went straight up and down hills, rather than in a serpentine pattern of switchbacks.

As to the standard Imperial terminology that was used, the words were localized for different elements used in construction and varied from region to region.

Viae were distinguished not only according to their public or private character, but according to the materials employed and the methods followed in their construction.

Ulpian divided them up in the following fashion: [9]. The Romans, though certainly inheriting some of the art of road construction from the Etruscans , borrowed the knowledge of construction of viae munitae from the Carthaginians according to Isidore of Sevilla.

The Viae terrenae were plain roads of leveled earth. These were mere tracks worn down by the feet of humans and animals, and possibly by wheeled carriages.

The Viae glareatae were earthed roads with a graveled surface or a gravel subsurface and paving on top. Livy speaks of the censors of his time as being the first to contract for paving the streets of Rome with flint stones, for laying gravel on the roads outside the city, and for forming raised footpaths at the sides.

Another example is found near the Via Latina. The best sources of information as regards the construction of a regulation via munita are: [9].

After the civil engineer looked over the site of the proposed road and determined roughly where it should go, the agrimensores went to work surveying the road bed.

They used two main devices, the rod and a device called a groma , which helped them obtain right angles. The gromatici , the Roman equivalent of rod men, placed rods and put down a line called the rigor.

As they did not possess anything like a transit , a civil engineering surveyor tried to achieve straightness by looking along the rods and commanding the gromatici to move them as required.

Using the gromae they then laid out a grid on the plan of the road. The libratores then began their work using ploughs and, sometimes with the help of legionaries , with spades excavated the road bed down to bedrock or at least to the firmest ground they could find.

The excavation was called the fossa , the Latin word for ditch. The depth varied according to terrain. The method varied according to geographic locality, materials available and terrain, but the plan, or ideal at which the engineer aimed was always the same.

The roadbed was layered. The road was constructed by filling the ditch. This was done by layering rock over other stones.

Into the ditch was dumped large amounts of rubble, gravel and stone, whatever fill was available.

Sometimes a layer of sand was put down, if it could be found. When it came to within 1 yd 1 m or so of the surface it was covered with gravel and tamped down, a process called pavire , or pavimentare.

The flat surface was then the pavimentum. It could be used as the road, or additional layers could be constructed.

A statumen or "foundation" of flat stones set in cement might support the additional layers. The final steps utilized lime-based concrete , which the Romans had discovered.

First a small layer of coarse concrete, the rudus , then a little layer of fine concrete, the nucleus, went onto the pavement or statumen.

Into or onto the nucleus went a course of polygonal or square paving stones, called the summa crusta. The crusta was crowned for drainage.

An example is found in an early basalt road by the Temple of Saturn on the Clivus Capitolinus. It had travertine paving, polygonal basalt blocks, concrete bedding substituted for the gravel , and a rain-water gutter.

Romans preferred to engineer solutions to obstacles rather than circumvent them. Outcroppings of stone, ravines, or hilly or mountainous terrain called for cuttings and tunnels.

The road functioned as a towpath, making the Danube navigable. Tabula Traiana memorial plaque in Serbia is all that remains of the now-submerged road.

Roman bridges , built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. Single slabs went over rills.

A bridge could be of wood, stone, or both. Wooden bridges were constructed on pilings sunk into the river, or on stone piers.

Larger or more permanent bridges required arches. These larger bridges were built with stone and had the arch as its basic structure see arch bridge.

Most also used concrete, which the Romans were the first to use for bridges. Roman bridges were so well constructed that a number remain in use today.

Causeways were built over marshy ground. The road was first marked out with pilings. Between them were sunk large quantities of stone so as to raise the causeway to more than 5 feet 1.

In the provinces, the Romans often did not bother with a stone causeway, but used log roads pontes longi.

The public road system of the Romans was thoroughly military in its aims and spirit. A legion on the march brought its own baggage train impedimenta and constructed its own camp castra every evening at the side of the road.

The modern word "mile" derives from the Latin milia passuum , "one thousand paces ", which amounted to 4, feet 1, metres. A milestone, or miliarium , was a circular column on a solid rectangular base, set for more than 2 feet 0.

At the base was inscribed the number of the mile relative to the road it was on. In a panel at eye-height was the distance to the Roman Forum and various other information about the officials who made or repaired the road and when.

These miliaria are valuable historical documents now. Turda , Romania : copy of the Milliarium of Aiton , dating from and showing the construction of the road from Potaissa to Napoca built by Cohors I Hispanorum miliaria in Roman Dacia , by demand of the Emperor Trajan.

The Romans had a preference for standardization wherever possible, so Augustus , after becoming permanent commissioner of roads in 20 BC, set up the miliarium aureum "golden milestone " near the Temple of Saturn.

All roads were considered to begin from this gilded bronze monument. On it were listed all the major cities in the empire and distances to them.

Constantine called it the umbilicus Romae "navel of Rome" , and built a similar—although more complex—monument in Constantinople , the Milion.

Milestones permitted distances and locations to be known and recorded exactly. It was not long before historians began to refer to the milestone at which an event occurred.

Combined topographical and road-maps may have existed as specialty items in some Roman libraries, but they were expensive, hard to copy and not in general use.

Travelers wishing to plan a journey could consult an itinerarium , which in its most basic form was a simple list of cities and towns along a given road, and the distances between them.

From this master list, parts could be copied and sold on the streets. The most thorough used different symbols for cities, way stations, water courses, and so on.

The Roman government from time to time would produce a master road-itinerary. Three Greek geographers, Zenodoxus , Theodotus and Polyclitus , were hired to survey the system and compile a master itinerary; the task required over 25 years and the resulting stone-engraved master itinerary was set up near the Pantheon.

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