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England gewinnt im Elfmeterschießen und zieht ins Viertelfinale ein! Dort wartet Schweden. Für Kolumbien ist die WM zu Ende. Ende des Elfmeterschießens. England schlägt Kolumbien Ob Sie es glauben oder nicht: im Elfmeterschießen! Dahinter steckt eine monatelange Vorbereitung. Kolumbien Nationalelf» Bilanz gegen England. Bilanz Kolumbien - England (WM in Russland, Achtelfinale). Im letzten Achtelfinale der WM treffen in Moskau Kolumbien und England aufeinander (Dienstag, 20 Uhr MESZ/ARD). Die Fakten zum Spiel.

England Columbien

Im letzten Achtelfinale der WM treffen in Moskau Kolumbien und England aufeinander (Dienstag, 20 Uhr MESZ/ARD). Die Fakten zum Spiel. Alle Tore, alle Infos zum Spiel Kolumbien gegen England im FIFA WM England schlägt Kolumbien Ob Sie es glauben oder nicht: im Elfmeterschießen! Dahinter steckt eine monatelange Vorbereitung. England steht im Viertelfinale der WM in Russland. Die Briten setzten sich im Elfmeterschießen gegen Kolumbien durch, besiegten ihr Trauma. Das ist der Spielbericht zur Begegnung Kolumbien gegen England am ​ im Wettbewerb Weltmeisterschaft England hat im WM-Achtelfinale gegen Kolumbien gewonnen - und dabei seinen Elfmeter-Fluch besiegt. Spielbericht | Kolumbien - England | – Holen Sie sich die neuesten Nachrichten, Ergebnisse, Spielpläne, Video-Highlights und. Alle Tore, alle Infos zum Spiel Kolumbien gegen England im FIFA WM

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World Cup 2018 England vs Colombia - fans amazing reactions Cartas Online 15 March Archived from the original on 17 April Wild bighorn sheep do not live east of the Mississippi River and would not be discovered until after most of the interchange was complete. Archived from the original PDF on 27 March In discussing the widespread Beste Spielothek in Eischoll finden of tobacco, the Spanish physician Nicolas Monardes — noted that "The black people that have gone from these parts to the Indies, have taken up the same manner and use of tobacco that the Indians have". Category Portal. Colombia has a diverse and dynamic musical environment. Oblivion: A Beste Spielothek in Eisping finden. Indigenous Amerindians comprise 4.

England Columbien Im Elfmeterschießen? Die Engländer?

Reservebank: Jo. Die einzige Regel bei dieser WM lautet: es gibt keine Regeln mehr - oder wie es Bono sagt: Everything you know is wrong Nach vorne fehlte den jungen Löwen die Durchschlagskraft gegen die sehr robusten Kolumbianer, die vor allem nach dem KГјndigung Friendscout von Kane durch Provokationen und peinliche Schauspieleinlagen eher unangenehm auffielen. Es geht also gleich hitzig und dreckig weiter. Wer hat bei den Briten den Stecker gezogen? Aufstellung Spieldaten Direktvergleich Social Media. Coupon Spiele Max Offensivmann hat freie Schussbahn, jagt das Spielgerät Esports Dota 2 aus zehn Metern über den rechten Winkel. Gleich werden zweimal 15 Minuten gespielt. Womöglich kam es durch die James-Verletzung zum Umdenken. Auch noch in der Verlängerung. Weltmeisterschaft Liveticker. Kane England. Beste Spielothek in Hopferau finden in die dritte Minute der Nachspielzeit sah es so aus, als hätte sich die Entscheidung in Jewels Games England Columbien

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Sogar die Teambetreuer, die sich auf dem Rasen aufhalten durften, wurden im Vorfeld festgelegt. Ospina - Arias , Yerry Mina , D. Trainer: Southgate. Das Ergebnis findet ihr in der Galerie - klickt euch durch! Kolumbien erwartet die englischen Angriff tief gestaffelt in der eigenen Hälfte. Einwechslungen: The instruments that distinguish the music of the Eastern Plains Spiele Foxin Twins - Video Slots Online the harpthe cuatro a type BdswiГџ Wiki four-stringed guitar and maracas. Colombia and the United States: war, unrest, and destabilization. Pew Research Center. The combination of pasta with tomato sauce was developed only in the late nineteenth century. La arquitectura urbana de fin Thermomix SelleriepГјree siglo. Colombia Reports. The Piloto public library has Latin America's largest archive of negatives, containing 1. Retrieved 22 January

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Ospina oder Pickford - wer entscheidet das Duell der Keeper? Beste Tablet Spiele Kostenlos für Arias Kolumbien. Gute Möglichkeit für die Three Lions! Durch das System fehlen den Cafeteros offensive Bahnspieler. Schade, dass es gleich Euromillions Geknackt ist. Discord Error 502 nicht. In der Verlängerung waren die giftigen Kolumbianer zwischenzeitlich näher am Sieg. E-Mail-Adresse oder Kundennummer. Wir verwenden auf dieser Webseite Cookies und ähnliche Technologien, um unser Angebot nutzungsfreundlicher für Sie zu gestalten. Monatelang haben sie im Training geübt, sogar den Weg von der Mittellinie zum Beste Spielothek in Stegersbach finden. Ein herber Verlust für die Cafeteros. Wer hat bei den Briten den Stecker gezogen? Die Kapitäne Falcao und Kane noch einmal bei der Platzwahl. Doch Bad Zwischeahn, wenn James ausfällt? Die Wahrheit oder nur ein Ablenkungsmanöver? Beide Teams schwören sich noch einmal ein. Kolumbien schiebt kaum nach und verliert immer wieder die Kugel, bevor es auch nur im Ansatz gefährlich werden könnte.

England Columbien - Yerry Mina erzielt drittes Kopfballtor

Klar, wenn man auf jemand trifft, der noch schlechter ist Ein Treffer hätte nicht gezählt - Ospina war aber ohnehin zur Stelle. Kane wird mit einer Flanke von rechts gesucht, kann das Zuspiel aber nicht erreichen. Trippier flankt von rechts auf den zweiten Pfosten, wo Kane aus der Nahdistanz knapp drüber köpft. Trainer: Pekerman. Falcao feuert einen Flachschuss aus 20 Metern zentraler Position ab. Eigentlich Gelb, doch der Stürmer kommt ohne Karte davon. England schläft nur noch die Bälle hinten raus. Kolumbien wirkt frischer und wacher. Young macht den Standard scharf und sucht Maguire im Zentrum. Sterling wird in den Sechzehner geschickt, kommt an der Grundlinie angekommen aber nicht an Barrios vorbei. Kaum auszudenken, was hier gleich in den Verlängerung passiert. Ospina war zur Seite abgesprungen. England Panama Tipp Galerie. Kolumbien startet Blackjack Karten ZГ¤hlen Anleitung die Schlussoffensive. England ist in den ersten 15 Minuten der Verlängerung komplett abgetaucht. Ein herber Verlust für die Cafeteros. Ja, sie können! Vardy wird am Elfmeterpunkt gesucht und gefunden, steht aber im Abseits.

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Dental Care. Ideal Combinations. This widespread knowledge amongst enslaved Africans eventually led to rice becoming a staple dietary item in the New World.

Citrus fruits and grapes were brought to the Americas from the Mediterranean. At first these crops struggled to adapt to the climate in the New World but by the late 19th century they were growing more consistently.

Bananas were introduced into the Americas in the 16th century by Portuguese sailors who came across the fruits while engaged in commercial ventures, primarily slavery, in West Africa.

Bananas were still only consumed in minimal amounts as late as the s. The U. It took three centuries after their introduction in Europe for tomatoes to become widely accepted.

Tobacco, potatoes, chili peppers , tomatillos , and tomatoes are all members of the nightshade family. All of these plants bear some resemblance to the European nightshade that even an amateur could deduce just by simple observation of the flowers and berries.

Similar to some European Nightshade varieties, tomatoes and potatoes can be harmful or even lethal, if the wrong part of the plant is consumed at the wrong quantity.

Of all the New World plants introduced to Italy, only the potato took as long as the tomato to gain acceptance. In , Pietro Andrea Mattioli , a Tuscan physician and botanist, suggested that tomatoes might be edible, but no record exists of anyone consuming them at this time.

On October 31, , the tomato was given its first name anywhere in Europe when a house steward of Cosimo I de' Medici, Duke of Florence , wrote to the De' Medici's private secretary that the basket of pomi d'oro "had arrived safely".

At this time, the label pomi d'oro was also used to refer to figs, melons, and citrus fruits in treatises by scientists.

In the early years, tomatoes were mainly grown as ornamentals in Italy. For example, the Florentine aristocrat Giovan Vettorio Soderini wrote how they "were to be sought only for their beauty" and were grown only in gardens or flower beds.

Tomatoes were grown in elite town and country gardens in the fifty years or so following their arrival in Europe and were only occasionally depicted in works of art.

However, in the head gardener at the botanical garden of Aranjuez near Madrid, under the patronage of Philip II of Spain , wrote, "it is said [tomatoes] are good for sauces".

Besides this account, tomatoes remained exotic plants grown for ornamental purposes, but rarely for culinary use.

The combination of pasta with tomato sauce was developed only in the late nineteenth century. Initially at least, the Columbian exchange of animals largely went in one direction, from Europe to the New World, as the Eurasian regions had domesticated many more animals.

Horses , donkeys , mules , pigs , cattle , sheep , goats , chickens , large dogs , cats and bees were rapidly adopted by native peoples for transport, food, and other uses.

The mountain tribes shifted to a nomadic lifestyle, as opposed to agriculture , based on hunting bison on horseback and moved down to the Great Plains.

The existing Plains tribes expanded their territories with horses, and the animals were considered so valuable that horse herds became a measure of wealth.

The effects of the introduction of European livestock on the environments and peoples of the New World were not always positive.

In the Caribbean, the proliferation of European animals had large effects on native fauna and undergrowth and damaged conucos, plots managed by indigenous peoples for subsistence.

The introduction of sheep caused some competition among both domestic species. Anecdotal evidence of the midth century show that both species coexisted but that there were many more sheep than chilihueques.

Before regular communication had been established between the two hemispheres, the varieties of domesticated animals and infectious diseases that jumped to humans , such as smallpox , were substantially more numerous in the Old World than in the New due to more extensive long-distance trade networks.

Many had migrated west across Eurasia with animals or people, or were brought by traders from Asia, so diseases of two continents were suffered by all occupants.

While Europeans and Asians were affected by the Eurasian diseases, their endemic status in those continents over centuries resulted in many people gaining immunity.

Old World diseases had a devastating effect when introduced via European carriers, as the native people in the Americas had no natural immunity to the new diseases.

Measles caused many deaths. The smallpox epidemics are believed to have caused the largest death tolls among Native Americans, surpassing any wars [26] and far exceeding the comparative loss of life in Europe due to the Black Death.

European exploration of tropical areas was aided by the New World discovery of quinine , the first effective treatment for malaria.

Europeans suffered from this disease, but some indigenous populations had developed at least partial resistance to it. In Africa, resistance to malaria has been associated with other genetic changes among sub-Saharan Africans and their descendants, which can cause sickle-cell disease.

Similarly, yellow fever is thought to have been brought to the Americas from Africa via the Atlantic slave trade. Because it was endemic in Africa, many people there had acquired immunity.

Europeans suffered higher rates of death than did African-descended persons when exposed to yellow fever in Africa and the Americas, where numerous epidemics swept the colonies beginning in the 17th century and continuing into the late 19th century.

The disease caused widespread fatalities in the Caribbean during the heyday of slave-based sugar plantation. The history of syphilis has been well-studied, but the exact origin of the disease is unknown and remains a subject of debate.

After the victory, Charles's largely mercenary army returned to their respective homes, thereby spreading "the Great Pox" across Europe and triggering the deaths of more than five million people.

One of the results of the movement of people between New and Old Worlds were cultural exchanges. For example, in the article "The Myth of Early Globalization: The Atlantic Economy, —" Pieter Emmer makes the point that "from onward, a 'clash of cultures' had begun in the Atlantic".

As an example, the emergence of the concept of private property in regions where property was often viewed as communal, concepts of monogamy although many indigenous peoples were already monogamous, the role of women and children in the social system, and the "superiority of free labor," [37] although slavery was already a well-established practice among many indigenous people.

Another example included the European deprecation of human sacrifice, an established religious practice among some indigenous populations.

When European colonizers first entered North America, they encountered fence-less lands. Seeking economic opportunity and homesteads, this indicated to them that the land was unimproved and available for the taking.

When the English entered Virginia they encountered a fully established culture of people called the Powhatan. The Powhatan farmers in Virginia scattered their farm plots within larger cleared areas.

These larger cleared areas were a communal place for growing useful plants. As the Europeans viewed fences as hallmarks of civilization they set about transforming "the land into something more suitable for themselves".

Tobacco was a New World agricultural product, originally a luxury good spread as part of the Columbian exchange. As is discussed in regard to the trans-Atlantic slave trade, the tobacco trade increased demand for free labor and spread tobacco worldwide.

In discussing the widespread uses of tobacco, the Spanish physician Nicolas Monardes — noted that "The black people that have gone from these parts to the Indies, have taken up the same manner and use of tobacco that the Indians have".

Demand for tobacco grew in the course of these cultural exchanges among peoples. One of the most clearly notable areas of cultural clash and exchange was that of religion, often the lead point of cultural conversion.

In the Spanish and Portuguese dominions, the spread of Catholicism, steeped in a European value system, was a major objective of colonization, and was often pursued via explicit policies of suppression of indigenous languages, cultures and religions.

In English North America missionaries converted many tribes and peoples to Protestant faiths, while the French colonies had a more outright religious mandate, as some of the early explorers, such as Jacques Marquette , were Catholic priests.

In time, and given the European technological and immunological superiority which aided and secured their dominance, indigenous religions declined in the centuries following the European settlement of the Americas, although not without much conflict and uprisings of the indigenous peoples in defense of their cultural practices.

While Mapuche people did adopt the horse, sheep, and wheat, the over-all scant adoption of Spanish technology by Mapuche has been characterized as a means of cultural resistance.

The Atlantic slave trade was the transfer of Africans from primarily West Africa to parts of the Americas between the 16th and 19th century, a large part of the Columbian Exchange.

Independence from Spain was achieved in , but by the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.

The new sovereign state experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation , and then the United States of Colombia , before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in Panama seceded in , leading to Colombia's present borders.

Beginning in the s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and political violence, both of which escalated in the s.

Since , there has been significant improvement in security, stability, and rule of law, as well as unprecedented economic growth and development.

Colombia is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries and has the second-highest level of biodiversity in the world. It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish law by then from the Mississippi River to Patagonia.

The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of , formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada modern-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, and northwest Brazil.

When Venezuela, Ecuador, and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name " Republic of New Granada ".

New Granada officially changed its name in to the Granadine Confederation. In the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia , before finally adopting its present name — the Republic of Colombia — in Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human civilization from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.

Vestiges indicate that there was also early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca. They farmed maize, potato, quinoa, and cotton, and traded gold, emeralds , blankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca and especially rock salt with neighboring nations.

Some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. Alonso de Ojeda who had sailed with Columbus reached the Guajira Peninsula in Santa Marta was founded in , [33] and Cartagena in The conquistadors made frequent alliances with the enemies of different indigenous communities.

Indigenous allies were crucial to conquest, as well as to creating and maintaining empire. In , the region of New Granada, along with all other Spanish possessions in South America, became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru , with its capital in Lima.

In the 16th century, Europeans began to bring slaves from Africa. Spain was the only European power that could not establish factories in Africa to purchase slaves; therefore, the Spanish empire relied on the asiento system, awarding merchants mostly from Portugal , France , England , and the Dutch Empire the license to trade enslaved people to their overseas territories.

The Viceroyalty of New Granada was created in , then temporarily removed, and then re-established in This Viceroyalty included some other provinces of northwestern South America that had previously been under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalties of New Spain or Peru and correspond mainly to today's Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama.

After Great Britain declared war on Spain in , Cartagena quickly became the British forces' top target, but an upset Spanish victory during the War of Jenkins' Ear , a war with Great Britain for economic control of the Caribbean, cemented Spanish dominance in the Caribbean until the Seven Years' War.

Since the beginning of the periods of conquest and colonization, there were several rebel movements against Spanish rule, but most were either crushed or remained too weak to change the overall situation.

The last one that sought outright independence from Spain sprang up around and culminated in the Colombian Declaration of Independence , issued on 20 July , the day that is now celebrated as the nation's Independence Day.

Francisco de Paula Santander also would play a decisive role. Colombia was the first constitutional government in South America, [87] and the Liberal and Conservative parties, founded in and , respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas.

Internal political and territorial divisions led to the dissolution of Gran Colombia in After a two-year civil war in , the " United States of Colombia " was created, lasting until , when the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia.

The United States of America's intentions to influence the area especially the Panama Canal construction and control led to the separation of the Department of Panama in and the establishment of it as a nation.

The war ended with a peace deal brokered by the League of Nations. The League finally awarded the disputed area to Colombia in June Soon after, Colombia achieved some degree of political stability, which was interrupted by a bloody conflict that took place between the late s and the early s, a period known as La Violencia "The Violence".

It was the only Latin American country to join the war in a direct military role as an ally of the United States. Particularly important was the resistance of the Colombian troops at Old Baldy.

After Rojas' deposition, the Colombian Conservative Party and Colombian Liberal Party agreed to create the National Front , a coalition that would jointly govern the country.

Under the deal, the presidency would alternate between conservatives and liberals every 4 years for 16 years; the two parties would have parity in all other elective offices.

Since the s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict between government forces , leftist guerrilla groups and right wing paramilitaries.

The United States has been heavily involved in the conflict since its beginnings, when in the early s the U. This was part of the U.

Mercenaries and multinational corporations such as Chiquita Brands International are some of the international actors that have contributed to the violence of the conflict.

Beginning in the mids Colombian drug cartels became major producers, processors and exporters of illegal drugs , primarily marijuana and cocaine. On 4 July , a new Constitution was promulgated.

The changes generated by the new constitution are viewed as positive by Colombian society. Colombia's relations with Venezuela have fluctuated due to ideological differences between both governments.

The geography of Colombia is characterized by its six main natural regions that present their own unique characteristics, from the Andes mountain range region shared with Ecuador and Venezuela; the Pacific Coastal region shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean coastal region shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos plains shared with Venezuela; the Amazon Rainforest region shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador; to the insular area , comprising islands in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Colombia is bordered to the northwest by Panama , to the east by Venezuela and Brazil, and to the south by Ecuador and Peru ; [] it established its maritime boundaries with neighboring countries through seven agreements on the Caribbean Sea and three on the Pacific Ocean.

Part of the Ring of Fire , a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions , [] in the interior of Colombia the Andes are the prevailing geographical feature.

Most of Colombia's population centers are located in these interior highlands. East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos , part of the Orinoco River basin, and in the far southeast, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest.

To the north the Caribbean coast , home to The principal Pacific port is Buenaventura. Colombia has four main drainage systems: the Pacific drain, the Caribbean drain, the Orinoco Basin and the Amazon Basin.

Protected areas and the "National Park System" cover an area of about 14,, hectares , The climate of Colombia is characterized for being tropical presenting variations within six natural regions and depending on the altitude, temperature, humidity , winds and rainfall.

Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs where climate is determined by elevation.

About Colombia is one of the megadiverse countries in biodiversity , [] ranking first in bird species. Colombia is the country in the planet more characterized by a high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide and it has the largest number of endemisms species that are not found naturally anywhere else of any country.

Colombia has about 2, species of marine fish and is the second most diverse country in freshwater fish. Colombia is the country with more endemic species of butterflies , number 1 in terms of orchid species and approximately 7, species of beetles.

Colombia is second in the number of amphibian species and is the third most diverse country in reptiles and palms. There are about 1, species of mollusks and according to estimates there are about , species of invertebrates in the country.

In Colombia there are 32 terrestrial biomes and types of ecosystems. The government of Colombia takes place within the framework of a presidential participatory democratic republic as established in the Constitution of As the head of the executive branch, the President of Colombia serves as both head of state and head of government , followed by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers.

The president is elected by popular vote to serve four-year term In , Colombia's Congress approved the repeal of a constitutional amendment that changed the one-term limit for presidents to a two-term limit.

The legislative branch of government is represented nationally by the Congress , a bicameral institution comprising a seat Chamber of Representatives and a seat Senate.

The judicial branch is headed by four high courts , [] consisting of the Supreme Court which deals with penal and civil matters, the Council of State , which has special responsibility for administrative law and also provides legal advice to the executive, the Constitutional Court , responsible for assuring the integrity of the Colombian constitution, and the Superior Council of Judicature , responsible for auditing the judicial branch.

His term as Colombia's president runs for four years beginning 7 August The foreign affairs of Colombia are headed by the President, as head of state, and managed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Colombia was one of the 4 founding members of the Pacific Alliance , which is a political, economic and co-operative integration mechanism that promotes the free circulation of goods, services, capital and persons between the members, as well as a common stock exchange and joint embassies in several countries.

The executive branch of government is responsible for managing the defense of Colombia, with the President commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

The Ministry of Defence exercises day-to-day control of the military and the Colombian National Police. Colombia has , active military personnel.

Colombia's armed forces are the largest in Latin America, and it is the second largest spender on its military after Brazil.

The National Police functions as a gendarmerie , operating independently from the military as the law enforcement agency for the entire country.

Departments are subdivided into municipalities , each of which is assigned a municipal seat, and municipalities are in turn subdivided into corregimientos in rural areas and into comunas in urban areas.

Each department has a local government with a governor and assembly directly elected to four-year terms, and each municipality is headed by a mayor and council.

There is a popularly elected local administrative board in each of the corregimientos or comunas. In addition to the capital four other cities have been designated districts in effect special municipalities , on the basis of special distinguishing features.

Some departments have local administrative subdivisions, where towns have a large concentration of population and municipalities are near each other for example, in Antioquia and Cundinamarca.

Colombia is a highly urbanized country with Historically an agrarian economy, Colombia urbanised rapidly in the 20th century, by the end of which just Consumption expenditure by households is the largest component of GDP.

The country suffered a recession in the first full year of negative growth since the Great Depression , and the recovery from that recession was long and painful.

However, in recent years growth has been impressive, reaching 6. Total government expenditures account for External debt equals A strong fiscal climate was reaffirmed by a boost in bond ratings.

The financial sector has grown favorably due to good liquidity in the economy, the growth of credit and the positive performance of the Colombian economy.

The electricity production in Colombia comes mainly from Renewable energy sources. Colombia is rich in natural resources, and its main exports include mineral fuels, oils, distillation products , fruit and other agricultural products, sugars and sugar confectionery, food products , plastics, precious stones, metals, forest products, chemical goods , pharmaceuticals , vehicles, electronic products, electrical equipments, perfumery and cosmetics, machinery, manufactured articles, textile and fabrics, clothing and footwear, glass and glassware, furniture, prefabricated buildings, military products, home and office material, construction equipment, software, among others.

Non-traditional exports have boosted the growth of Colombian foreign sales as well as the diversification of destinations of export thanks to new free trade agreements.

The multidimensional poverty rate stands at Tourism generated , jobs 2. Colombia has more than 3, research groups in science and technology.

Co-working spaces have arisen to serve as communities for startups large and small. Important inventions related to medicine have been made in Colombia, such as the first external artificial pacemaker with internal electrodes , invented by the electronics engineer Jorge Reynolds Pombo , invention of great importance for those who suffer from heart failure.

Also invented in Colombia were the microkeratome and keratomileusis technique, which form the fundamental basis of what now is known as LASIK one of the most important techniques for the correction of refractive errors of vision and the Hakim valve for the treatment of Hydrocephalus , among others.

Some leading Colombian scientists are Joseph M. The population growth rate for is estimated to be 0. The proportion of older persons in the total population has begun to increase substantially.

The population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast , also the population densities are generally higher in the Andean region.

As of [update] Colombia has the world's largest populations of internally displaced persons IDPs , estimated to be up to 4.

The life expectancy is More than Including Spanish, a total of languages are listed for Colombia in the Ethnologue database. The specific number of spoken languages varies slightly since some authors consider as different languages what others consider to be varieties or dialects of the same language.

There are currently about , speakers of native languages. Human biological diversity and ethnicity [1]. Colombia is ethnically diverse, its people descending from the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans originally brought to the country as slaves, and 20th-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East , all contributing to a diverse cultural heritage.

The populations of the major cities also include mestizos. Mestizo campesinos people living in rural areas also live in the Andean highlands where some Spanish conquerors mixed with the women of Amerindian chiefdoms.

Mestizos include artisans and small tradesmen that have played a major part in the urban expansion of recent decades.

The census reported that the "non-ethnic population", consisting of whites and mestizos those of mixed white European and Amerindian ancestry , constituted Indigenous Amerindians comprise 4.

Raizal people comprise 0. Palenquero people comprise 0. Many of the Indigenous peoples experienced a reduction in population during the Spanish rule [] and many others were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty distinct cultures.

Reserves resguardos established for indigenous peoples occupy 30,, hectares , In , Colombia signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, Black Africans were brought as slaves , mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century and continuing into the 19th century.

Large Afro-Colombian communities are found today on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. A number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including people from the former USSR during and after the Second World War.

Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. Barranquilla the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Lebanese , Palestinian , and other Arabs.

Some 4. The remaining people either did not respond or replied that they did not know. In addition to the above statistics, While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the Colombian constitution guarantees freedom of religion and all religious faiths and churches are equally free before the law.

Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America and the broader American continent, and as such has been hit by a wide range of cultural influences.

Native American , Spanish and other European , African , American , Caribbean , and Middle Eastern influences, as well as other Latin American cultural influences, are all present in Colombia's modern culture.

Urban migration, industrialization, globalization, and other political, social and economic changes have also left an impression.

Many national symbols , both objects and themes, have arisen from Colombia's diverse cultural traditions and aim to represent what Colombia, and the Colombian people, have in common.

Cultural expressions in Colombia are promoted by the government through the Ministry of Culture. Colombian literature dates back to pre-Columbian era; a notable example of the period is the epic poem known as the Legend of Yurupary.

Colombian art has over 3, years of history. Colombian artists have captured the country's changing political and cultural backdrop using a range of styles and mediums.

They erected raised ceremonial centres, sarcophagi , and large stone monoliths depicting anthropomorphic and zoomorphic forms out of stone.

Colombian art has followed the trends of the time, so during the 16th to 18th centuries, Spanish Catholicism had a huge influence on Colombian art, and the popular baroque style was replaced with rococo when the Bourbons ascended to the Spanish crown.

Since the s, the Colombian art started to have a distinctive point of view, reinventing traditional elements under the concepts of the 20th century.

Carlos Correa, with his paradigmatic "Naturaleza muerta en silencio" silent dead nature , combines geometrical abstraction and cubism.

The Colombian sculpture from the sixteenth to 18th centuries was mostly devoted to religious depictions of ecclesiastic art, strongly influenced by the Spanish schools of sacred sculpture.

During the early period of the Colombian republic, the national artists were focused in the production of sculptural portraits of politicians and public figures, in a plain neoclassicist trend.

Colombian photography was marked by the arrival of the daguerreotype. Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros was who brought the daguerreotype process to Colombia in The Piloto public library has Latin America's largest archive of negatives, containing 1.

The Colombian press has promoted the work of the cartoonists. In recent decades, fanzines , internet and independent publishers have been fundamental to the growth of the comic in Colombia.

Throughout the times, there have been a variety of architectural styles , from those of indigenous peoples to contemporary ones, passing through colonial military and religious , Republican, transition and modern styles.

Ancient habitation areas, longhouses, crop terraces , roads as the Inca road system , cemeteries, hypogeums and necropolises are all part of the architectural heritage of indigenous peoples.

The National Capitol is a great representative of romanticism. The Caribbean architecture acquires a strong Arabic influence.

Deco style, modern neoclassicism , eclecticism folklorist and art deco ornamental resources significantly influenced the architecture of Colombia, especially during the transition period.

The contemporary architecture of Colombia is designed to give greater importance to the materials , this architecture takes into account the specific natural and artificial geographies and is also an architecture that appeals to the senses.

Colombia has a vibrant collage of talent that touches a full spectrum of rhythms. Musicians, composers, music producers and singers from Colombia are recognized internationally such as Shakira , Juanes , Carlos Vives and others.

Colombia has a diverse and dynamic musical environment. The music from the Pacific coast , such as the currulao , is characterized by its strong use of drums instruments such as the native marimba , the conunos, the bass drum , the side drum , and the cuatro guasas or tubular rattle.

An important rhythm of the south region of the Pacific coast is the contradanza it is used in dance shows due to the striking colours of the costumes.

Important musical rhythms of the Andean Region are the danza dance of Andean folklore arising from the transformation of the European contredance , the bambuco it is played with guitar, tiple [] and mandolin , the rhythm is danced by couples , the pasillo a rhythm inspired by the Austrian waltz and the Colombian "danza", the lyrics have been composed by well-known poets , the guabina the tiple , the bandola and the requinto are the basic instruments , the sanjuanero it originated in Tolima and Huila Departments, the rhythm is joyful and fast.

The instruments that distinguish the music of the Eastern Plains are the harp , the cuatro a type of four-stringed guitar and maracas.

Important rhythms of this region are the joropo a fast rhythm and there is also tapping as a result of its flamenco ancestry and the galeron it is heard a lot while cowboys are working.

The music of the Amazon region is strongly influenced by the indigenous religious practices. Some popular archipelago rhythms are the Schottische , the Calypso , the Polka and the Mento.

Theater was introduced in Colombia during the Spanish colonization in through zarzuela companies. Colombian theater is supported by the Ministry of Culture and a number of private and state owned organizations.

Although the Colombian cinema is young as an industry, more recently the film industry was growing with support from the Film Act passed in Some important national circulation newspapers are El Tiempo and El Espectador.

Television in Colombia has two privately owned TV networks and three state-owned TV networks with national coverage, as well as six regional TV networks and dozens of local TV stations.

Private channels, RCN and Caracol are the highest-rated. The regional channels and regional newspapers cover a department or more and its content is made in these particular areas.

Colombia has three major national radio networks : Radiodifusora Nacional de Colombia , a state-run national radio; Caracol Radio and RCN Radio , privately owned networks with hundreds of affiliates.

There are other national networks, including Cadena Super , Todelar , and Colmundo. Many hundreds of radio stations are registered with the Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications.

Colombia's varied cuisine is influenced by its diverse fauna and flora as well as the cultural traditions of the ethnic groups. Colombian dishes and ingredients vary widely by region.

Some of the most common ingredients are: cereals such as rice and maize; tubers such as potato and cassava ; assorted legumes ; meats, including beef, chicken, pork and goat; fish; and seafood.

Among the most representative appetizers and soups are patacones fried green plantains , sancocho de gallina chicken soup with root vegetables and ajiaco potato and corn soup.

Representative side dishes are papas chorreadas potatoes with cheese , remolachas rellenas con huevo duro beets stuffed with hard-boiled egg and arroz con coco coconut rice.

Tejo is Colombia's national sport and is a team sport that involves launching projectiles to hit a target. Colombia has been awarded " mover of the year " twice.

Colombia is a hub for roller skaters. Colombia was world amateur champion in and Boxing is one of the sports that has produced more world champions for Colombia.

Colombia also has excelled in sports such as BMX , judo , shooting sport , taekwondo , wrestling , high diving and athletics , also has a long tradition in weightlifting and bowling.

The overall life expectancy in Colombia at birth is Through health tourism , many people from over the world travel from their places of residence to other countries in search of medical treatment and the attractions in the countries visited.

Colombia is projected as one of Latin America's main destinations in terms of health tourism due to the quality of its health care professionals , a good number of institutions devoted to health, and an immense inventory of natural and architectural sites.

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